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Brief Scale Definitions

Anxiety Scale

The type of anxiety that this Scale measures is what could be termed "free" anxiety in contrast to "bound" anxiety, which manifests itself in psychobiological mechanisms of conversion and hypochondriacal symptoms, in compulsions, in doing and undoing, in withdrawal from human relationships, and so forth. Some aspects of bound anxiety are registered by this Scale, particularly by means of displacement and denial. This type of bound anxiety is relatively accessible to consciousness, usually in defensive form and is capable, along with grossly conscious "free" anxiety feelings, of activating autonomic nervous system and central nervous system signs of arousal..

On the basis of clinical observation the Anxiety Scale is classified into six subtypes: death, mutilation, separation, guilt, shame, and diffuse or non-specific anxiety. Fear of death is assessed by those content items dealing directly with death and destruction. Mutilation anxiety is synonymous with "castration" anxiety, and the descriptive items in the Scale pertaining to this subtype of anxiety are derived from clinical psychoanalytic psychology. The concept of separation anxiety and the descriptive items designating what references in speech are to be included under this heading are also derived from psychoanalytic psychology. The descriptive items differentiating shame from guilt anxiety distinguish shame through verbal references to ridicule, inadequacy, embarrassment, humiliation, exposure of shortcomings or details of a person's private life, and distinguish guilt through verbal references to adverse criticism, abuse, condemnation , or moral disapproval, especially based on internalized attitudes or values. Diffuse or non-specific anxiety is the category of anxiety in the Scale where it is impossible to distinguish the type of anxiety-fear which is being verbalized.

Full definition of the Anxiety Scale.

Hostility Scales

The Hostility Scales are designed to measure three types of hostility of a transient, rather than sustained, affect. The hostility scores derived from several verbal samples obtained from the same individual will provide a trait-like measure.

The Hostility Directed Outward Scale measures the intensity of adversely critical, angry, assaultive, asocial impulses and drives towards objects outside oneself.

Full definition of the Hostility Outward Scale.

The Hostility Directed Inward Scale measures degrees of self-hate and self-criticisms and, to some extent, feelings of anxious depression and masochism.

Full definition of the Hostility Inward Scale.

The Ambivalent Hostility Scale, though derived from verbal communications suggesting destructive and critical thoughts or actions of others to the self, also measures not only some aspects of hostility directed inward, but at the same time some features of hostility directed outwards.

Full definition of the Ambivalent Hostility Scale.

All three hostility scales assign higher weights to scorable verbal statements communicating hostility that, by inference, is more likely to be strongly experienced by the speaker; whereas, completely repressed hostility is not scored.

Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale

This Scale was originally designed to measure the relative degree of personal disorganization, social alienation, and isolation of schizophrenic patients. The common denominators of the schizophrenic syndrome are considered to be disturbances in the coherence and logicality of thinking processes and disturbances in human relationships, especially in the form of withdrawal, avoidance, and antagonism. Another principal characteristic of this concept of the schizophrenic syndrome is that it is a phenomenon quantitatively describable, that is, there are relative degrees of severity of schizophrenia and, in some schizophrenic individuals, the severity can fluctuate considerably from day-to-day. This concept of the schizophrenic syndrome, in fact, holds that these principal, and characteristic features of schizophrenia -- social alienation and personal disorganization -- are present to a varying extent in non-schizophrenic individuals but not in such a continuous and/or extreme fashion as in schizophrenia.

Full definition of the Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale

Cognitive and Intellectual Impairment Scale

The Cognitive and Intellectual Impairment Scale is designed to measure transient and reversible changes in cognitive and intellectual functions as well as permanent and irreversible changes, all due principally to brain dysfunction and minimally to transient emotional changes in the individual.

Full definition of the Cognitive Impairment Scale

Hope Scale

The Hope Scale is designed to measure the intensity of the optimism that a favorable outcome is likely to occur, not only in one's personal earthly activities, but also to cosmic phenomena and even in spiritual or imaginary events. The favorable outcome is intended to denote one which might lead to human survival, the preservation or enhancement of health, the welfare or constructive achievement of the self or any part of mankind.

Full definition of the Hope Scale.

Depression Scale

This Depression Scale, derived from verbal samples, provides measurement dimensions compatible with the concept that there are a number of potentially relevant subcategories of the construct of depression which have significant statistical relationships with different underlying pathogenic processes. Thus, in addition to providing a total score, it has a broad range of phenomenological subscales. These are:

I. Hopelessness.

II. Self-Accusation.

III. Psychomotor Retardation.

IV. Somatic Concerns.

V. Death and Mutilation Depression.

VI. Separation Depression.

VII. Hostility Outward.

Full definition of the Depression Scale

Health/Sickness Scale

This is a content analysis scale aiming to measure the dimension of illness, physical or mental. It was developed originally to follow the course of patients with metastatic cancer who received total or patial body radiation.

Full definition of the Health/Sickness Scale

Human Relations Scale

The Human Relations Scale offers a quantitative estimate of an individual's degree of interest in and capacity for constructive, mutually productive, or satisfying human relationships.

Full definition of the Human Relations Scale

Achievement Strivings Scale

The purpose of the Achievement Strivings Scale is to provide a means to assess both the transient swings and typical levels of motivation toward achievement and dependency and also the relative magnitude of reactions of frustrations in each of these drives.

Full definition of the Achievement Strivings Scale

Dependency Strivings Scale

This scale (which includes a scale for Frustrated Dependency Strivings) was developed to investigate a number of psychiatric and psychosomatic theories involving the concepts of excessive dependency drives or of dependency frustration.

Full definition of the Dependency Strivings (and Frustrated Dependency Strivings) Scale

Quality of Life Scale

The Quality of Life Scale is a composite of scores taken from other Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis scales. It estimates the subject's quality of life by examining hope, social alienation-personal disorganization, depression, health/sickness, and human relations.

Full definition of the Quality of Life Scale

Narcissistic Scale

The Narcissistic Scale was devised from a synthesis of descriptions from the scientific literature on narcissistic patients and healthy narcissistic individuals. It provides an objective measure of the relative magnitude of narcissism. The characteristic captured in the Narcissistic Scale appears to be the degree to which a person feels entitlement versus a sense of responsibility for his or her accomplishments and failures. Healthy narcissism consistes of the recognition that one's own attributes and the attributes of others are, to a large degree, the products of choices that a person makes in life and not due to the presence or absence of some mysterious fate, birthright, or entitlement.

The Narcissistic Scale is only available in experimental versions of PCAD.

Full definition of the Narcissistic Scale


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